These two dissimilar paradigms - cloud and edge-based computing - act similarly under conventional use cases, but become fundamentally different when considering safety-critical CPSs operating in dynamic and uncertain conditions. For example, attacks on self-driving cars may inflict harm to their users and thus have received a lot of attention recently. The glaring examples are overtaking control of a moving vehicles and hacking industrial robots, where various vulnerabilities may be exploited to hijack remote access to the capable factory equipment. The potential consequences may include inserting hidden defects inside the CPSs, provoking their malfunctions, or making them harmful for the nearby human.
Including whole set of instructions to replicate this attack on most of CAN-operating vehicles. The possible threats include ``dangerous effects, such as inserting defects in the products, or making the robot harmful to nearby humans or to itself.